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Mark Zuckerberg’s 6 Ingredients For Success

Mark Zuckerberg’s 6 Ingredients For Success

Leadership guru Warren Bennis asked whether leaders are born or made. When asked if Wall Street would accept a young Mark Zuckerbergin his early 20s as CEO, Facebook investor Peter Thiel said: “Well, we’ll wait until he’s over 25 to file”.  Wise move, considering that Mark’s title on his business cards read “I’m CEO, bitch”.

This week Facebook filed its S-1 to go public.  Mark is 27.  How Mark managed to launch a social networking site after Friendster had crashed during MySpace’s zenith has been widely chronicled.  What’s been less discussed is how Mark mastered the six requirements to succeed, namely Ambition, Vision, Determination, Execution, Luck and Timing.


“The tallest blade of grass is the first to be cut by the scythe”, Russian Proverb

The foundation and building block of any successful person is Ambition, or the desire for personal achievement.

People are driven by success, recognition, respect, money, power or fame. If you believe everything in The Social Network, Mark launched Facebook to level the playing field at Harvard and to succeed at getting girls.  Success is relative, subjective and fluid; over time Mark’s definition of success grew to match his brainchild’s imprint.

Wearing your ambition on your sleeve will get you cut off at the knees, but ambition is required to succeed; the challenge is channeling it properly and managing your emotions around it.  When the Winklevoss twins first hired Mark to build their social networking site, Mark never revealed his ambitions to build his own site.  It was only later – far too late for the Winklevoss – that Mark revealed his true ambition.


A design glitch allowed MySpace users to customize their profiles.  But that mixed blessing created a cacophonous environment which made users welcome Facebook’s clean interface.

Facebook wasn’t visionary in any revolutionary sense of the word.  Where Facebook deserves credit was that Mark et al. recognized the need for a real directory of people, not merely users.  Before Facebook it was nearly impossible to actually find people, you could “google” them but finding the person you wanted within one search wasn’t a given.  We now take it for granted, but that extension of people search and connecting them was certainly evolutionary, and it’s worth noting that most successes are not radically new but extensions and improvements of existing paradigms.

The critics may note that Mark sometimes lacked charisma.  In this context, charisma is a subset of vision:  it allows you to convince others to buy into your vision, but charisma in and of itself is not a requirement to succeed, it’s an accelerant or amplifier.  In Mark’s case, he has had the good fortune to let Facebook’s massive growth rates do the talking for him.


“Stay Focused, Keep Shipping”, Mark Zuckerberg

When you look back to Facebook’s functionality when it launched, it was bare bones.  Facebook has added features while scaling users, literally changing jet engines at 30,000 feet without missing a beat.  It’s easy to laugh at missteps like Beacon or the privacy dossier and fail to appreciate the velocity at which Facebook has evolved and grown.


To quote President Calvin Coolidge:

“Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination are omnipotent. The slogan ‘press on’ has solved and always will solve the problems of the human race.”

Back in 1995, Steve Jobs added: “I’m convinced that about half of what separates the successful entrepreneurs from the non-successful ones is pure perseverance”.

Determination, drive, tenacity or persistence is the most important variable, demonstrated by  Mark through his: relentless coding early on to launch Facebook to catch the Winklevoss brothers off guard; adding colleges; attacking MySpace; defending against the subsequent lawsuit from the twins;  repeated encroaching into people’s privacy (which remains one of Mark’s Achilles heels).  But, to his credit, he has repeatedly not cared or believed in himself enough to charge ahead no matter what.  Mark is a constant reminder that it’s easier to ask for forgiveness than for permission.

So those were the first four traits: largely innate, can be learned, and things you can control.  But without the next two, you won’t succeed.


“A great fortune depends on luck, a small one on diligence”, Chinese Proverb

In sports and in business, luck can be your best friend or your undoing.

Let’s face it: Mark’s had a horseshoe up his butt.  Luck made him run into Sean Parker, who introduced him to Peter Thiel, without whom as an ally and first outside investor it’s unlikely he would have remained CEO to this day.

But you create your own luck, or when lady luck smiles down on you, you seize the opportunity.


Google wasn’t the first search engine, YouTube wasn’t the first video sharing site and Facebook certainly wasn’t the first social network.  Geocities, Tripod, Friendster, Tribe Networks, MySpace are just some that come to mind.

Mark’s managed the clock all along: slowing down the Winklevoss brothers; launching Facebook on Harvard first to then expand to other colleges; relocating to California; refusing Viacom and Yahoo!’s offers; closing his deal with Microsoft.

While the comparisons to Google’s IPO are understandable, Google ushered a new Internet Bull run whereas Facebook’s is coming at the tail end of Zynga, Groupon, LinkedIn, Demand Media and Pandora’s – none of which have fared particularly well.

However, much like Google’s IPO made it the Internet stock bellwether, Facebook will become the de facto stock pick of individual and institutional investors, pushing demand to justify the lofty price-to-earnings and price-to-sales multiples.

There you have it: success = ambition + vision + execution + persistence + luck + timing; with the first four being things you can control and the last two being externalities that you cannot.

While I’ve praised and criticized him and Facebook, as a fellow entrepreneur, Mark is someone all builders look up to and admire despite his obvious mistakes – reminding me of the Michael Jordan quote: “I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.”


Mark Zuckerberg is the founder and CEO of Facebook, which he started in his college dorm room in 2004 with roomates Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. Zuckerberg is responsible for setting the overall direction and product strategy for Facebook. He leads the design of Facebook’s service and development of its core technology and infrastructure. Earlier in life, Zuckerberg developed a music recommendation system called Synapse and a peer-to-peer client called Wirehog. However, he abandoned both to pursue new projects. Zuckerberg…


src :- techgig
What happens on the Internet every 60 seconds

What happens on the Internet every 60 seconds

Let’s say that it takes you exactly one minute to read through this post. In that time, over 6,600 photos will be uploaded to Flickr, about 70 new domains will be registered, over 1,200 new ads will be created on Craigslist, and more. Here’s what happens on the Internet every 60 seconds.

That disclaimer aside and without further ado, here’s what’s happening each minute:

  • Search engine Google serves more that 694,445 queries
  • 6,600+ pictures are uploaded to Flickr
  • 600 videos are uploaded to YouTube, amounting to 25+ hours of content
  • 695,000 status updates, 79,364 wall posts and 510,040 comments are published on social networking site Facebook
  • 70 new domains are registered
  • 168,000,000+ emails are sent
  • 320 new accounts and 98,000 tweets are generated on social networking site Twitter
  • iPhone applications are downloaded more than 13,000 times
  • 20,000 new posts are published on micro-blogging platform Tumblr
  • Popular web browser FireFox is downloaded more than 1,700 times
  • Popular blogging platform WordPress is downloaded more than 50 times
  • WordPress Plugins are downloaded more than 125 times
  • 100 accounts are created on professional networking site LinkedIn
  • 40 new questions are asked on
  • 100+ questions are asked on
  • 1 new article is published on Associated Content, the world’s largest source of community-created content
  • 1 new definition is added on
  • 1,200+ new ads are created on Craigslist
  • 370,000+ minutes of voice calls done by Skype users
  • 13,000+ hours of music streaming is done by personalized Internet radio provider Pandora
  • 1,600+ reads are made on Scribd, the largest social reading publishing company

Source :-

What Can We Learn From Dennis Ritchie?

What Can We Learn From Dennis Ritchie?

As we noted earlier this week, one of the founding fathers of UNIX and the creator of C, Dennis Ritchie, passed away last weekend. While I feel that many in computer science and related fields knew of Ritchie’s importance to the growth and development of, well, everything to do with computing, I think it’s valuable to look back at his accomplishments and place him high in the CS pantheon already populated by Lovelace, Turing, and (although this crowing will be controversial, at least until history has its say) the recently-departed Steve Jobs.

UNIX was one of the first multi-user operating systems, allowing scientists and researchers to share computer time on what were traditionally batch-based machines. The concept of multi-user and multitasking were of great interest to researchers simply because of the time required to write, run, and receive the output of batch programs. Computer time, in batch mode, was expensive, as this anecdote illustrates:

While mulling over the problems of operating systems in 1969, [Ken] Thompson [the co-creator of Unix] in his spare time developed a computer game called “Space Travel.” The game simulated the motion of the planets in the solar system. A player could cruise between the planets, enjoy the scenery, and even land the ship on the planets and moons.

The game, first written on Multics and then transliterated into Fortran for the GECOS operating system, ran on a GE 635 computer. The game’s display was jerky and hard to control because the player had to type commands to control the ship. Also, it cost about $75 in CPU time on the big GE 635, a cost that hardly endeared it to management.

At $75 a game, especially in 1960s dollars, it was hard for a hacker to have any fun. Dennis Ritchie and Thompson worked together to build UNIX as a hacker’s paradise, a place to test small programs and share the results. He was a physicist and mathematician by training but entered the nascent world of mainframe and micro-computing at just the right time. The 1960s and 1970s were a time of great change in the way computing interacted with the world. Whereas the the common view was that “These darn computers are going to mess up my phone bill,” in reality computers were messing up the status quo. In a few short years paper records were slowly eroded by computation, telephone switches were changing from wild, steampunk octopi into a quasi-mechanical system of routers and terminals. Bell Labs was at the forefront of it all, tasked with connecting the world through copper wire. Most important, what he was doing was difficult, something we forget in the days of drag-and-drop, autocompleting IDEs.

The key to UNIX was the concept of sharing. The OS was begin in 1969 as a reaction to Bell Labs shutting down Thompson and Ritchie’s favorite operating system, Multics. With the cooperation of multiple organizations including MIT, a group of four New Jersey Bell Labs programmers began working on a neglected PDP-7 machine where they ported the Space Travel game and began to build out a file system in order to save games. Slowly, a command structure that anyone familiar with modern Linux would understand accreted around this file system. Slowly word of UNIX trickled out of the small cabal of original users and in 1971 the Bell Labs patent filing office began using it to format documents for printing using nroff.

It is also important to note that Linus Torvalds was born in 1969, making him a prime candidate to reap the benefits of what you could term the UNIX Age. To come of age in the tumult of a new industry is important and Gates, Torvalds, and Ritchie all were excellent examples of this.

Ritchie went on to create a number of other improvements and, in the development of the C operating system, gave the world its first multi-machine, cross-compatible coding standard that anyone, from a grizzled machine language veteran to a young student in Helsinki, could use and understand. The UNIX source code was passed from programmer to programmer like holy writ even after AT&T refused to make it available to education institutions. It was written in C with some of its core components written in machine language in order to shave off time, cycles, and most important, to retain an elegance that Ritchie and Thompson inculcated through cross-pollination of ideas. No one man, not even Ritchie, understood the complexity of the beast that became UNIX and that was by design. The goal was simplicity up front and complexity in the back, a model that everyone in computing would do well to emulate.

Also important was the desire to reach a golden ideal in clarity and elegance. “Peer pressure and simple pride in workmanship caused gobs of code to be rewritten or discarded as better or more basic ideas emerged,” wrote Doug McIlroy, a member of the UNIX team. “Professional rivalry and protection of turf were practically unknown: so many good things were happening that nobody needed to be proprietary about innovations”.

The question is, then what can we learn about building our own products from this giant of computing? First, Ritchie and Thompson wanted to have fun. There was no initial push to make money and, in fact, their goal was to save money or at least hide their gaming by moving it to a less costly machine.

The second is the necessity to work outside your comfort zone. Ritchie was a physicist and a mathematician. However, he became a programmer. While it’s clear that his background helped him immensely in building UNIX and C, as Bjarne Stroustrup noted, Ritchie was not afraid to attempt to work in new and unfamiliar territory. “If Dennis had decided to spend that decade on esoteric math, Unix would have been stillborn,” he writes.

Third is the importance of a hands-off approach to innovation. Ritchie was lucky in that Bell Labs had the money and staff to allow him to hide in the shadows with his friends, creating what they wanted on their own timeline. Google seems to have captured that same sense of internal experimentation obviously with their 20% projects as well as their Labs products that slowly metamorphose into mainstream tools. That the Google founders allowed these 20% projects almost immediately after inception of the company is a testament to Thompson and Ritchie’s methodology. People build mean tools when the foreman is watching and masterpieces when left to their own devices.

Finally, we have the importance of sharing. It amuses me to no end to see a small start-up cloak their product behind NDAs and secrecy or to watch entrepreneurs mistake glad-handing with networking. When this happens, it’s clear that their idea is not novel nor will it be particularly successful nor is their attitude particularly conducive to growth. I would argue that many current, successful entrepreneurs aren’t successful because they talk a good game but because they play one.

Arguably the most important software project in the world today, Linux, is important because it gloriously available and open. There are those who will crow that open is not synonymous with profitable, but those people are at best pessimists and at worst fools.

In the end Dennis Ritchie taught us that computing wasn’t a secret society, one that required long years of service and special incantations to join. His intellectual largesse is writ large over everything we do online and his still as an explainer – although notoriously shy – shone in his voluminous commentary and online notes. Although none of us can attain what he and the Bell/AT&T team attained, especially considering their milieu and the relative nascence of the information age, we’re reminded that this doesn’t matter. After all, as we learned from the UNIX source code all those years ago:

* You are not expected to understand this.

You simply have to build on it.

Source :- techcrunch

Will There Ever Be Another Steve Jobs?

Will There Ever Be Another Steve Jobs?

Steve Jobs leaves behind a nearly unrivaled legacy of invention and innovation.

His products are loved by millions and copied by competitors; his design aesthetic has become the barometer by which all other things are compared, and his vision of the future has given life to products and services that have changed entire industries.

Are we likely to see another human being in our lifetime wield as great an influence?

Mashable contacted industry insiders, entrepreneurs and celebrated technologists to get their perspectives. Could there ever be another person capable of profoundly changing the world through software and hardware design as Jobs has done?

History Suggests People With These Attributes Will Occasionally Emerge

stephen wolfram

At the high end of innovative human achievement, the details never repeat; that’s what defines the innovation.

But history suggests that in at least a fair fraction of civilizations, people with these attributes will occasionally emerge.

– Stephen Wolfram, founder & CEO, Wolfram Research

A Product Of An Era That Was


Yes there will be. And no there won’t be.

The sensibility that Jobs brought to products — beautiful design, attention to simplicity — humanizes design and end-to-end coupling of hardware and software. These things are all very much part of the future we in this industry are building.

There is so much still to be built. Smart device-based devices and software, dumb devices and software. Social services. Beautiful services! The USA is well positioned to continue to lead in technology and web services. We are makers in this field — and I hope we will remain leaders and makers.

All that said, there won’t be another person who has such a singular influence on hardware and software and innovation. The market today tends to reward and focus people on quick hits versus deep investigation and commitment. Jobs spent the better part of his life thinking about the human/computer interface — from Newton to the sheet of glass I’m typing on now (iPhone). That kind of focus in one company, by one person covering hardware and software is a product of an era that was.

– John Borthwick, founder & CEO, Betaworks

Some Of Us Will Make It Happen Again


Will there be another Steve Jobs? At a different time, different place, and different focus, yes.

There are a very few people in the world that stand up to what Steve created. His willingness to be uncompromising, even in the face of great difficulty, and to have brilliant insight … these qualities are hard to find. Yet every once in a while, there are individuals that out of vision, or perhaps need, stand up, stand in an uncompromising place, and create.

As I reflect on the story that I have heard about Steve’s upbringing, I think that the conditions of his youth, more than anything else, are the source of what created him. Early struggle, with a family that cared for him, but still was in struggle … these things laid the foundation. Finding his way to Zen meditation practice gave him focus. Dropping in on classes (e.g. his insight about print because of the calligraphy classes that he took) gave him insight into other worlds that he brought to Apple. And Silicon Valley gave him a place to grow his dreams and vision.

Although I could never measure my own accomplishments against his, I do believe that I, and others, have followed a simliar path — a path driven by uncompromisingly driving a great vision. Some of us will make it happen again.

Candidates. Sadly, at this note … this is not clear to me. Perhaps it’s because Steve’s passing happened quicker than I thought it would. I do believe, though, that with the events of this year, we’ll see others step forward.

Getting to work at NeXT changed my life … in Steve, I feel lucky to have had a hero that I got to learn from.

– Kevin Koym, Founder, Tech Ranch Austin

Jobs Set a New Standard

Speaking both as the founder of Pandora and as a longtime musician, I can say that no one brought more innovation and more opportunity to music than Steve and Apple.

His extraordinary vision and tenacity, and the artistry of the Apple products set a new standard for everyone.

– Tim Westergren, founder & chief strategy officer, Pandora

People Thought There Would Never Be Another Edison

It’s easy to say there won’t be. Largely because, well, there won’t be.

But people probably thought there would never be another Edison, either. And here we are, celebrating the life of Steve Jobs and every amazing thing he did.

– Matt Buchanan, deputy editor, Gizmodo

A Singular Combination of Genius & Execution

Will there ever be another Steve Jobs? No.

The combination of genius and execution at his level is so singular that it is meaningless to compare it with others. Was there another Mozart? Shakespeare? Einstein? There will never be another Steve Jobs, but — exactly because his lifetime focus was on the very ideas of experience and design and perfection — he has inspired ten thousand people to come after him, and stand on his shoulders, and reach much further than he did.

– Phil Libin, CEO, Evernote

A Unique Combo of Vision, Design, Performance, Leadership & Elegance

Steve Jobs’ passing has me both saddened, humbled and inspired all at the same time. I haven’t been able to stop thinking about it. My heart goes out to his family, everyone at Apple and everyone affected by his amazing achievements.

Steve brought to light a unique combination of vision, design, performance, leadership and elegance that inspired and changed the world.

– Adam Brotman, senior vice president, Starbucks Digital Ventures

Jobs & Apple Transcend Generations

I don’t think there will be another Steve Jobs. Three main reasons:

Very few people have the sheer ability to produce products like Steve did. This has been discussed a lot. Steve was a product visionary: He thought years ahead to launch spectacular devices. He said “no” when something wasn’t right. People talk about the small stuff, like an icon’s color being slightly off. But more importantly was the big stuff, like not releasing a tablet for years until the hardware and software was ready. That takes patience.

You need to build an amazing team around you. Apple has this. From the executives to all the employees, Apple has the most spectacular set of engineers and designers in the world. You can’t do it alone, and you need people you can trust and who have the same passion you do.

There are other product geniuses out there, but the reason why none will match Steve is because Apple builds products that really touch people’s lives. Our phones help us communicate, iTunes for music, video chat, photos… These are very emotional things for us and that’s what Apple builds. They transcend generations and technology.

– Sachin Agarwal, founder & CEO, Posterous

Jobs Was Willy Wonka

Steve Jobs was Willy Wonka — a brilliant, creative, determined, private man who made so many people believe his toys were magical!

It is amazing how his death has been elevated into a loss of such monumental proportions as one would expect with the death of Martin Luther King, Gandhi, or JFK. A good friend of mine said it best: “Perhaps in a world that is obsessed with ‘stuff’ and money, Steve Jobs was a messiah.”

– Dmitry Shapiro, CEO & co-founder, Anybeat

A Seismic Shift From Content To Product

I don’t think our generation will see another Steve Jobs, if by that we mean the combined impact on product and design, as well as the business world.

In short, what he did turning around Apple as a business is pretty much unheard of in the technology industry — to go from an existing, maturing business that was literally running out of cash, failing products in the face of a dominant competitor (Microsoft) to go on to be one of the most valuable companies in the world … I think that one is a no.

As a leader, taking big bets, inspiring, being visionary while risking a multi-billion dollar company, I can’t think of another example, and the world of business is rife with the other side of the coin.

On the other hand, his influence on the world of products and design will indeed lead to “another” Steve Jobs in terms of consumer impact.

In my mind, Steve Jobs represents a seismic shift from content to product. It’s hard to internalize but having been within large media organizations there’s always a belief that content alone will drive audiences, build platforms, determine winners.

What Steve did was to ignite our passions for products … from Google to Facebook these are entire organizations and businesses that have styled themselves after Apple placing a critical importance on product — information and user design, quality of experience, simplicity of form and function. Just take a look at any developer conference and suddenly you are seeing a different breed of young design-influenced, product-centric teams. I credit Steve with that shift.

– Adam Cahan, Media Products Vice President, Yahoo

The Life & Times of Steve Jobs

1955 – 1960s: Birth – Childhood


February 24, 1955: Steve Jobs is born in San Francisco. He is adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs.

1969: Jobs meets Steve Wozniak at Homestead High School.


4 Indians in “Top 35 Innovators Under 35″ list from MIT’s Technology Review

4 Indians in “Top 35 Innovators Under 35″ list from MIT’s Technology Review

MIT’s Technology Review today announced the TR 35, the magazine’s annual list of 35 outstanding men and women under the age of 35 who exemplify the spirit of innovation in business and technology. The latest list of Technology Review TR35 list of 35 innovators under the age of 35 includes 2 Indians from the Technology Review India TR35 list selected in March 2011 and two innovators of Indian origin.

Two Indians Ajit Narayanan, Invention Labs, Chennai and Aishwarya Ratan, Yale University, who were part of TR35 India Winners announced in March 2011 form part of this list. The 2011 TR35 were selected from more than 250 submissions by a panel of expert judges and the editorial staff of Technology Review. Judges represented leading organizations such as Google, Harvard Medical School, Microsoft Research, MIT, and Stanford University.

Profile of inventors include:

Ajit Narayanan, 30

Affordable speech synthesizers

Invention Labs

Some four million people in India suffer from cerebral palsy and other disabilities that make it difficult or impossible for them to speak. Giving them a voice is the job of Ajit Narayanan’s low-cost tablet-based system, Avaz. Even someone with only limited movement control can use Avaz to construct phrases that are spoken out loud by an artificial voice.

Speech synthesizers have long been used in the West (perhaps most famously by Stephen Hawking), but they are prohibitively expensive to all but the richest in India. Narayanan’s Invention Labs, based in Chennai, designed Avaz to be not only cheap but also capable of supporting multiple languages. “The average young person in India speaks and uses three different languages every day,” Narayanan points out. By working directly with Asian hardware manufacturers, he has been able to bring the cost of an Avaz down to around $800, compared with $5,000 to $10,000 for a single-­language device in the United States.

Just over 100 of the devices have been sold so far, mainly to specialist schools, and they are in use by around 500 children. “I’ve seen parents weep when Avaz allows them to talk with their [child] for the first time,” says Narayanan. He is currently working with the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, to improve the quality of the speech synthesis, and he also plans to use mobile app stores to distribute a version of his software with about 90 percent of the full Avaz system’s functionality.

Aishwarya Ratan, 30

Converting paper records to digital in real time

Yale University

Beginning in 2009, while working with Microsoft Research India, Aishwarya Ratan spent 15 months figuring out how to help local microcredit co-ops, which often struggle with handwritten entries that are illegible, incorrect, or incomplete.

Her solution combines digital technology with the familiar paper notebooks that villagers prefer. Co-op members use an electronic ballpoint pen to write in ledgers placed on a slate equipped with software that recognizes handwritten numbers. The slate provides feedback on whether the records are complete and legible, stores them in a database, and gives real-time balance updates, both on a screen and verbally in the local language. The database can be shared with the nongovernmental organizations and banks that back each co-op.

In field tests, the hybrid slate yielded entries that were 100 percent complete and made record keeping faster while letting co-op members retain the paper records they are comfortable with. The potential of the system is tremendous: microfinance co-ops serve 86 million Indian households. High-­quality record keeping could make them more efficient, helping members save more and repay faster, and it could allow the co-ops to borrow more easily from banks.

In June, Ratan became the director of the Microsavings and Payments Innovation Initiative at Yale University, which as part of its mission studies how technologies can help the poor financially. Meanwhile, the NGO that Ratan was partnering with continues to test the slate in villages.

Piya Sorcar, 33

Software that can be localized to teach taboo topics


Despite considerable educational efforts by experts and organizations alike, public awareness in India about the growing HIV epidemic has remained low. So Piya Sorcar, founder and CEO of TeachAIDS, has developed interactive software to educate children about HIV in a way that’s sensitive to the country’s cultural mores.

When Sorcar traveled to India in 2005, she found that even children and young adults who received training on HIV didn’t learn much: cultural taboos prevented educators from speaking frankly about how the virus is transmitted. As she designed her software, she took pains to ensure that it didn’t run afoul of those taboos. She analyzed cultural responses to every image used. She recorded narration with correct local accents, created gender-specific versions of each program, enlisted local celebrities for voice acting, and tested to see how much information children retained, even long after the lessons were over.

The cultural sensitivity has paid off: Sorcar’s software has been approved and distributed by states in India where other sex education is banned. The software has been designed to be modular, so that it’s easy to swap in locally appropriate elements. The country of Botswana has approved it for every school in the nation, and Sorcar hopes to distribute it to countries around the world within five years.—

2011 TR35 Honorees:

1. Pieter Abbeel, University of California, Berkeley

2. Yemi Adesokan, Pathogenica

3. June Andronick, NICTA

4. Judd Antin, Yahoo Research

5. Solomon Assefa, IBM

6. Jernej Barbic, University of Southern California

7. Dan Berkenstock, Skybox Imaging

8. Christopher Bettinger, Carnegie Mellon University

9. Alexandra Boltasseva, Purdue University

10. Jennifer Dionne, Stanford University

11. Brian Gerkey, Willow Garage

12. Yu-Guo Guo, Wuhe

13. Jeff Hammerbacher, Cloudera

14. Dae-Hyeong Kim, Seoul National University

15. Bhaskar Krishnamachari, University of Southern California

16. Gert Lanckriet, University of California, San Diego

17. Xiao Li, Microsoft Research

18. Andrew Mason, Groupon

19. Miriah Meyer, University of Utah

20. Joel Moxley, Foro Energy

21. Ajit Narayanan, Invention Labs

22. Alina Oprea, RSA Laboratories

23. Andrew Phillips, Microsoft Research

24. Chris Poole,

25. Aishwarya Ratan, Yale University

26. Jesse Robbins, Opscode

27. Ben Rubin, Zeo

28. Umar Saif, Lahore University of Management Sciences

29. Riccardo Signorelli, Fastcap

30. Noah Snavely, Cornell University

31. Piya Sorcar, Teachaids

32. Paul Wicks, PatientsLikeMe

33. Fengnian Xia, IBM

34. Fan Yang, Stanford University

35. Kun Zhou, Zhejiang University